Parametric or first-person modulation in cortical midline regions during emotional picture presentation. a) Upper part. FMRI images represent results from a random effects group analysis (n = 13) depicted on a standard MNI brain. X, y, z: MNI coordinates in mm. X describes right (+)/left (-), y anterior (+)/posterior (-), and z superior (+)/inferior (-) distances. Z = Z-score. Only regions with Z > 3.29 (p < 0.001, uncorrected, voxel level) are described. The aim of the analysis was to characterise the parametric modulation of the BOLD-signal during the presentation of IAPS-pictures. To that end we adopted a parametric analysis using the valence ratings (1–9 rated by the subjects in a post hoc analysis) as the modulation parameter, which was tested against baseline. Parametric modulations of regional signal intensities during presentation of IAPS pictures were obtained in OMPFC (x = 16, y = 56, z = 19; Z = 3.35), DMPFC (x = 12, y = 48, z = 24; Z = 3.29; visible in the coronal image), MPC (x = -2, y = 34, z = 60; Z = 3.68) and left insula (x = -54, y = -10, z = 14; Z = 4.3). b) Lower Part. The parametric relationship between picture valence (x-axis, valence values from 1 [negative] to 9 [positive]) and signal percent change (y-axis, intensity change of the BOLD signal) during viewing of IAPS pictures is demonstrated. The regional local maxima of valence-dependent modulation were correlated with the picture valences. Parametric valence-dependent modulation of signal percent change was found in the following regions during IAPS picture viewing: The OMPFC (x = 16, y = 56, z = 19; Z = 3.35), the DMPFC (x = 12, y = 48, z = 24; Z = 3.29) and the MPC (x = -2, y = -34, z = 60; Z = 3.68). OMPFC = orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC = dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, MPC = medial parietal cortex.