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Table 3 Aspects of association to consider prior to the provisional inference of causation as proposed by Sir Austin Bradford Hill (Adapted from [1])

From: The need to reform our assessment of evidence from clinical trials: A commentary

Criteria Description
Strength Correlation or relative measures of effect (i.e. risk ratio)
Consistency Across variable studies in design, populations, settings, circumstances, and time
Specificity Intervention causes the effect
Temporality Intervention precedes effect
Biologic Gradient Dose-response curve between intervention and effect
Plausibility Based on the current biologic knowledge of mechanisms of disease
Coherence In the context of knowledge of natural history and related treatments
Experiment Prospective clinical investigations of hypotheses