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Table 5 Summary of components to consider when evaluating the quality of evidence from research.

From: The need to reform our assessment of evidence from clinical trials: A commentary

Components
Study Design:
   Randomized
   Allocation concealment
   Blinding (if possible)*
   Clinically important and objective primary outcome
   Beta-error**
   Multi-centre
Study Conduct:
   Intention-to-treat analysis
   Follow-up or attrition rate
   Completion to planned numbers
Study Findings:
   Biological plausibility
   Strength of estimate of effect
   Precision of estimate of effect
   Observed event rate
Study Applicability:
   Complex intervention
   Consistency across similar studies
   Generalizability
   Cost of intervention
  1. *Blinding may not be possible in device or protocol/process trials
  2. **Adequately powered, appropriate estimate of control event rate and relative or absolute reduction in patient-centred and clinically important primary outcome.