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Table 1 Methodologies of the healthcare studies discussed.

From: How clinicians make (or avoid) moral judgments of patients: implications of the evidence for relationships and research

Ethnography, participant observation, qualitative interviews, focus groups Cassell, 2004 [3]; Zola, 1963 [8]; Glaser, 1964 [9]; Roth, 1972 [10]; Varcoe, 2003 [12]; Emerson, 1976 [16]; Jeffery, 1979 [18]; Bolton, 2005 [19]; Willems, 2005 [40]; Monnickendam, 2007 [45]; Fiscella, 1997 [46]; May, 2004 [48]; Wear, 2006 [50]; Hadfield, 2009 [54]; Lyth, 1988 [60]
Survey of clinicians or patients (not both) Weitzman, 2000 [44]; Malat, 2006 [47]; Mackay, 2005 [53]; Nicolaidis, 2005 [56]; Regan, 2009 [61]; Foster, 2003 [64]; von Hippel, 2008 [66]; Merrill, 1993 [87]
Mixed survey and qualitative interviews Bowers, 2002 [20]; Regehr, 2002 [129]
Linked qualitative physician and patient interviews Scott, 2008 [26]
Linked patient and physician surveys with one-year follow-up patient survey Hall, 2002 [13]
Videotaped visits followed by linked qualitative interviews of patients and clinicians Katz, 2009 [14]
Observed and audiotaped visits followed by linked qualitative interviews of patients and clinicians Weissmann, 2006 [110]
Qualitative physician interviews linked to patient record review Shaw, 2004 [17]
Survey of physicians linked to patient records and angiogram data van Ryn, 2006 [71]
Standardized patient visits (surreptitiously audiotaped) linked to psychological testing of physicians Chapman, 2008 [88]
Psychological tests and speech analysis of patients linked to psychological tests and speech analysis of clinicians Berry, 2008 [93]
Tests of implicit and explicit attitudes linking clinicians and patients (IAT) Brener, 2007 [65]
Conversation analysis of videotaped visits Webb, 2009 [51]; Pillet-Shore, 2006 [52]
Web-based trigger written vignette and photo followed by survey and implicit attitude tests (IAT) Green, 2007 [70]
Trigger videotape followed by countertransference instrument Schwartz, 2007 [59]
Educator interviews of trainees following observed visits Smith, 2005 [62]
Trigger written vignette followed by survey and empathy instrument Tait, 2005 [49]
Controlled experiment randomizing medical students into different teaching programs with quantitative and qualitative performance, psychological, and sociological data Hammond, 1959 [42]
  1. The first cluster encompasses a diverse group of qualitative methodologies, often mixed within the same study. The survey methodologies in the second cluster also vary significantly. Of note are studies that link specific clinicians to data on their specific patients. IAT = Implicit Association Test.