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Table 2 Methodologies of illustrative social psychology and neuroscience studies discussed.

From: How clinicians make (or avoid) moral judgments of patients: implications of the evidence for relationships and research

Web-based survey (psychological instruments including vignette trigger) of students and managers Reynolds, 2007 [28]
Functional MRI responses and lexical priming tests of stereotype activation to trigger photographs (black and white faces) under three different social task conditions Wheeler, 2005 [30]
Functional MRI and emotional responses to trigger photographs illustrating different social groups and objects Harris, 2006 [31]
Web-based international survey using measures of beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes Oldmeadow, 2007 [32]
Moral judgment responses to vignettes under four different conditions stimulating disgust and neutral controls Schnall, 2008a [33]
Functional MRI responses to moral and non-moral stimuli of disgust Borg, 2008 [34]
Moral judgment responses to heterosexual and homosexual couples and completion of disgust sensitivity scale; IAT response to heterosexual and homosexual couples Inbar, 2009a [35]
Web-based surveys of disgust sensitivity, political orientation and political attitudes Inbar, 2009b [36]
Moral judgment responses to vignettes following verbal priming for cleanliness or control and following hand-washing or control Schnall, 2008b [37]
Measures of automatic evaluations of a person given various positive and negative information, photos with changing backgrounds, and affective priming Rydell, 2009 [73]
Measure of egalitarian commitment and priming test of preconscious stereotype activation Moskowitz, 1999 [75]
Functional MRI responses to written scripts stimulating specific moral emotions Moll, 2007 [79]
Measures of subjective autonomic awareness, skin conductance, heart rate, and behavior of subjects in an immersive virtual environment who were told to give electric shocks to a virtual (not real) stranger Slater, 2006 [84]
Functional MRI responses while playing video games King, 2006 [85]
Measures of emotional response, generosity, and oxytocin (and 4 other hormones) in response to emotional videos Barraza, 2009 [98]
Functional MRI responses to unpleasant pictures, including moral violations Harenski, 2008 [106]
Measures of expressive behavior, subjective feelings, and physiology (pulse, finger temperature, skin conductance, heart rate and somatic activity) in response to disgusting film stimuli under different instructions to control versus suppress feelings Gross, 1998 [121]
  1. This table highlights the diversity of research methodologies. MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, IAT = Implicit Association Test.