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Table 1 Stages of surrogacy preconception and possible disruptions (Source: Author’s Research)

From: Failed surrogate conceptions: social and ethical aspects of preconception disruptions during commercial surrogacy in India

Process of surrogacy: preconception Labour involved for the surrogates Possible reproductive disruptions
Screening of surrogate (and donors) Frequent visits to clinics for ultrasonography (vaginal and abdominal) and blood tests, hormonal shots & medicines Need for re-matching
Hormonal stimulations
Intended parents & surrogate (& donor) matching
Ovum pickup &/or sperm collection (if needed)
Fertilisation & incubation
Embryo freezing (usually)
Signing of contract
Embryo transfer Embodiment of embryo, movement restrictions, hormonal shots  
Waiting period Embodiment of embryo, movement restrictions, hormonal shots  
Pregnancy test (betaHCG) Blood test followed by abdominal ultrasonography Missed conceptions, chemical pregnancies