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Table 1 Evolution of the stages of change in the 1980s and 1990s

From: Critique of the concept of motivation and its implications for healthcare practices

Year Stages of change Authors
1982 [14] Decision to quit
Active change
Maintenance
DiClemente, Prochaska
1982 [16] Contemplation
Determination
Action
Maintenance
Prochaska, DiClemente
1983 [17] Precontemplation
Contemplation
Action
Maintenance
McConnaughy, Prochaska, Velicer
1983 [15] Precontemplation
Contemplation
Action
Maintenance
Prochaska, DiClemente
1991 [18] Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
DiClemente, Prochaska, Fairgurst, Velicer, Velasquez, Rossi
1992 [19] Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Termination
Prochaska, DiClemente, Norcross
1994 [20] Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Prochaska, Velicer, Rossi, Goldstein, Marcus, Rakowski, Fiore, Harlow, Redding, Rosenbloom, Rossi
1997 [21] Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Termination
Prochaska, Velicer